The European Educational Researcher

The Effect of Pressure Groups and the Moral Intensity on School Administrators’ Unethical Behavior: An Evaluation According to Teachers' Opinions

The European Educational Researcher, Volume 3, Issue 3, October 2020, pp. 173-191
OPEN ACCESS VIEWS: 323 DOWNLOADS: 140 Publication date: 15 Nov 2020
In this study, it was aimed to determine the effect of pressure groups and moral intensity on school administrators' unethical behaviors according to teachers' opinions. The study group of the research, which is causal comparative research, consists of 313 teachers. The research data have been collected by adapting the Openness to Violation of Ethical Decision (OVED) scale. In the research, descriptive statistics, one-way ANOVA with repeated measures and two-way ANOVA for factorial design have been applied. In the research, it has been found out that the school administrators’ possibility of behaving unethically varies according to the moral intensity and pressure groups. As the moral intensity decreases, it can be stated that the school administrators’ possibility of behaving unethically increases when the demand comes from bureaucratic and political pressure groups. The school administrators’ possibility of performing an unethical act with both low and high moral intensity shows a meaningful difference according to the pressure group and the level of relationship between the teacher and the administrator. School administrators’ possibility of performing an unethical act with high moral intensity shows a meaningful difference according to teacher’s gender. At the end of the study, some suggestions have been made by considering the limitations and results of the research.
Ethical decision making, Moral intensity, Pressure group, School administrator, Unethical behaviour.
ÖNDER, E., & TOMUL, E. (2020). The Effect of Pressure Groups and the Moral Intensity on School Administrators’ Unethical Behavior: An Evaluation According to Teachers' Opinions. The European Educational Researcher, 3(3), 173-191.
  1. Arabacı, İ. B., Şanlı, Ö., & Altun, M. (2015). The evaluation of the views related to methods of training and assigning school administrators of union representatives, education inspectors and school administrators. Mustafa Kemal University Journal of Graduate School of Social Sciences, 12(31), 166-186.
  2. Argon, T., Çelik-Yılmaz, D., & İsmetoğlu, M. (2017). Teachers’ opinions towards school administrators’ behaviors of work ethics. Journal of Research in Education and Teaching, 6(3), 210-221.
  3. Aslanargun, E. (2011). Türkiye’de okul yönetimi ve atama yönetmelikleri [School management and assignment regulations in Turkey]. e- Journal of New World Sciences Academy, 6(4), 2646-2659.
  4. Balyer, A., & Tabancalı, E. (2019). The Roles of Interest and Pressure Groups in Developing Sustainable Educational Policies in Turkey. Sustainability, 11(24), 7052. Doi:10.3390/su11247052
  5. Brass, D. J., Butterfield, K. D., & Skaggs, B. C. (1998). Relationships and unethical behavior: A social network perspective. Academy of Management Review, 23(1), 14-31. Doi:10.5465/amr.1998.192955
  6. Bommer, M., Gratto, C., Gravander, J., & Tuttle, M. (1987). A behavioral model of ethical and unethical decision making. Journal of Business Ethics, 6(4), 265-280.
  7. Büyüköztürk, S., Kılıç Çakmak, E., Akgün, Ö. E., Karadeniz, S., & Demirel, F. (2012). Bilimsel Araştırma Yöntemleri (18. bs.) [Scientific Research Methods]. Ankara: Pegem Yayıncılık.
  8. Caldwell, C., Shapiro, J. P., & Gross, S. J. (2007). Ethical leadership in higher education admission: Equality vs. equity. Journal of College Admission, 195, 14-19.
  9. Can, A. (2015). SPSS ile Bilimsel Araştırma Sürecinde Nicel Veri Analizi [Quantitative Data Analysis in the Scientific Research Process with SPSS]. Ankara: Pegem Yayıncılık.
  10. Crane, A., & D. Matten (2004). Business Ethics: A European Perspective. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  11. Cohen, J. R., Pant, L. W., & Sharp, D. J. (2001). An examination of differences in ethical decision-making between Canadian business students and accounting professionals. Journal of Business Ethics, 30(4), 319-336.
  12. Erdem, A. R. (2015). Ethics of educational management and the critics of ethics leadership in education management. The Journal of Academic Social Science, 3(10), 1-15.
  13. Ergun, T. (2004). Kamu Yönetimi: Kuram, Siyasa, Uygulama[Public Administration: Theory, Politics, Practice]. Ankara: TODAİE Yayınları.
  14. Fassin, Y. (2009). Inconsistencies in activists’ behaviours and the ethics of NGOs. Journal of Business Ethics, 90(4), 503-521. Doi: 10.1007/s10551-009-0056-6
  15. Fornell, C., & Larcker, D. F. (1981). Evaluating structural equation models with unobservable variables and measurement error. Journal of Marketing Research, 18(1), 39-50. Doi: 10.1177/002224378101800104
  16. Hair, J. F., Ringle, C. M., & Sarstedt, M. (2011). PLS-SEM: Indeed a silver bullet. Journal of Marketing Theory and Practice, 19(2), 139-152.
  17. Henseler, J., Ringle, C. M., & Sinkovics, R. R. (2009). The Use of Partial Least Squares Path Modeling in International Marketing. In New challenges to international marketing (pp. 277-319). Emerald Group Publishing Limited.
  18. Hodgkinson, C. (2004). The triumph of the will: An exploration of certain fundamental problematics in administrative philosophy. In H. Tomlinson (Ed.), Educational Management, Major Themes in Education 1 (pp. 29–45). London: UK: Routledge.
  19. Hulland, J. (1999). Use of partial least squares (PLS) in strategic management research: A review of four recent studies. Strategic Management Journal, 20(2), 195-204. Doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0266(199902)20:2<195::AID-SMJ13>3.0.CO;2-7
  20. Ilies, R., Nahrgang, J. D., & Morgeson, F. P. (2007). Leader-member exchange and citizenship behaviors: A meta-analysis. Journal of applied psychology, 92(1), 269-277. Doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.92.1.269
  21. Jones, T. M. (1991). Ethical decision-making by Individuals in organizations: An issue contingent model. The Academy of Management Review, 16(2), 366-395. Doi: 10.5465/amr.1991.4278958
  22. Karande, K., Shankarmahesh, M. N., Rao, C. P., & Rashid, Z. M. (2000). Perceived moral intensity, ethical perception, and ethical intention of American and Malaysian managers: A comparative study. International Business Review, 9(1), 37-59. Doi: 10.1016/S0969-5931(99)00028-1
  23. Karip, E. (2018). Okul müdürü başöğretmendir[School principal is a head teacher]. Retrieved from
  24. Kirby, P. C., Paradise, L. V., & Protti, R. (1992). Ethical reasoning of educational administrators: Structuring inquiry around the problems of practice. Journal of Educational Administration, 30(4), 25-32.
  25. Kuzu, B. (1985). Kamu yönetiminde baski gruplarinin rolü ve memleketimizdeki duruma kisa bir bakiş [A brief overview of the role of pressure groups in public administration and the situation in our country]. İstanbul Üniversitesi Hukuk Fakültesi Mecmuası, 5, 65-136.
  26. Leech, N., Barrett, K., & Morgan, G. A. (2013). SPSS for Intermediate statistics: Use and interpretation. Routledge.
  27. Liden, R. C., Wayne, S. J., & Stilwell, D. (1993). A longitudinal study on the early development of leader-member exchanges. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78(4), 662. Doi: 10.1037/0021-9010.78.4.662
  28. Matthews, T. (1997). Interest groups. In Educational Politics in Australia; Smith, R., Ed.; Allen and Unwin: St. Leonards, Australia.
  29. Mencl, J., & May, D. R. (2009). The effects of proximity and empathy on ethical decision-making: An exploratory investigation. Journal of Business Ethics, 85(2), 201-226. Doi: 10.1007/s10551-008-9765-5
  30. MNE. (2014). Millî Eğitim Bakanlığı Eğitim Kurumlarına Yönetici Görevlendirme Yönetmeliği[Regulation on Assignment of Managers to the Ministry of National Education Educational Institutions]. Retrieved from
  31. Mustamil, N., & Quaddus, M. (2009). Cultural influence in the ethical decision making process: The perspective of Malaysian managers. The Business Review, Cambridge, 13(1), 171-176.
  32. Nunnally, J. C., & Bernstein, I. H. (1994). Psychometric Theory (3rd ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill.
  33. Önder, E., & Taş, A. (2014). Comparison of heads of departments’ and research assistants’ value preferences in university (SDÜ and MAKÜ Sample). Mehmet Akif Ersoy University Journal of Education Faculty, 1(30), 141-164.
  34. Önen, Ö. (2014). Teachers’ Openness to Violation of Ethical Decisions. Doctoral dissertation, Middle East Technical University, Ankara.
  35. Önen, Ö., & Kondakçı, Y. (2017). Development and validation of openness to violation of ethical decisions scale. İnönü University Journal of the Faculty of Education, 18(3), 201-216. Doi: 10.17679/inuefd.285811
  36. Özcan, K. (2014). The effects of environmental pressure groups on school management (Sample of Adıyaman City). e-International Journal of Educational Research, 5(1), 88-113.
  37. Pallant, J. (2016). SPSS survival manual: A step by step guide to data analysis using IBM SPSS. Routledge.
  38. Paolillo, J. G., & Vitell, S. J. (2002). An empirical investigation of the influence of selected personal, organizational and moral intensity factors on ethical decision making. Journal of Business Ethics, 35(1), 65-74.
  39. Poon, J. M. (2006). Trust-in-supervisor and helping coworkers: Moderating effect of perceived politics. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 21(6), 518-532. Doi: 10.1108/02683940610684373
  40. Robertson, C., & Fadil, P. A. (1999). Ethical decision making in multinational organizations: A culture-based model. Journal of Business Ethics, 19(4), 385-392.
  41. Robin, D. P., Reidenbach, R. E., & Forrest, P. J. (1996). The perceived importance of an ethical issue as an influence on the ethical decision-making of ad managers, Journal of Business Research, 35(1), 17-28. Doi: 10.1016/0148-2963(94)00080-8
  42. Sağanak, M. (2012). School management and moral literacy: A conceptual analysis of the model. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 12(2), 1419-1430.
  43. Schriesheim, C. A., Castro, S. L., & Cogliser, C. C. (1999). Leader-member exchange (LMX) research: A comprehensive review of theory, measurement, and data-analytic practices. The Leadership Quarterly, 10(1), 63-113. Doi: 10.1016/S1048-9843(99)80009-5
  44. Shapiro, J. P., & Hassinger, R. E. (2007). Using case studies of ethical dilemmas for the development of moral literacy: Towards educating for social justice. Journal of Educational Administration, 45(4), 451-470. Doi: 10.1108/09578230710762454
  45. Singhapakdi, A., Vitell, S. J., & Kraft, K. L. (1996). Moral intensity and ethical decision-making of marketing professionals. Journal of Business Research, 36(3), 245-255. Doi: 10.1016/0148-2963(95)00155-7
  46. Sinha, A. K., & Mishra, S. K. (2011). Factors affecting ethical decision making in corporate setting. Purushartha-A journal of Management, Ethics and Spirituality, 4(1), 135-154.
  47. SGEDEP. (2016). Eğitimde Toplumsal Cinsiyet Eşitliğinin Geliştirilmesi Projesi[Project for Improving Gender Equality in Education]. Ankara. Retrieved from .
  48. Spar, D., & La Mure, L. (2003). The power of activism: Assessing the impact of NGOs on global business. California Management Review, 45(3), 78-100. Doi: 10.2307/41166177
  49. Street, M., & Street, V. L. (2006). The effects of escalating commitment on ethical decision-making. Journal of Business Ethics, 64(4), 343-356. Doi: 10.1007/s10551-005-5836-z
  50. Sweeney, B., Arnold, D., & Pierce, B. (2010). The impact of perceived ethical culture of the firm and demographic variables on auditors’ ethical evaluation and intention to act decisions. Journal of Business Ethics, 93(4), 531-551. Doi: 10.1007/s10551-009-0237-3
  51. Teale, M., Dispenza, V., Flynn, J., & Currie, D. (2003). Managing Decision-Making: Towards an Integrated Approach. Harlow: Prentice-Hall.
  52. Tekel, E., & Karadag, E. (2017). A qualitative study on the moral dilemmas of elementary and high school principals. Turkish Journal of Business Ethics, 10(1), 87-98. Doi: 10.12711/tjbe.2017.10.1.0006
  53. Tuana, N. (2007). Conceptualizing moral literacy. Journal of Educational Administration, 45(4), 364-378. Doi:10.1108/09578230710762409
  54. Urun, Z., & Gökçe, A. T. (2015). The tactics of school principals for coping with the demands of pressure groups. Journal of Teacher Education and Educators, 4(1), 105-125.
  55. MEB’de Görev Yapan Yöneticilerin Sendikal Dağılımı [Union Distribution of the Managers Working in the Ministry of National Education]. Retrieved from
  56. Yücekök, A. (1987). Siyasetin Toplumsal Tabanı (Siyaset sosyolojisi) [Social Base of Politics (Political sociology)]. Ankara: Ankara Üniversitesi Siyasal Bilgiler Fakültesi Yayınları No: 565.1987.
Creative Commons License